Illustrations Critical Shoulder Angle

Design of two illustrations on commonly occurring damage to the shoulder joint in connection with "Critical Shoulder Angle" (CSA).


“Critical Shoulder Angle (CSA) is a score used in an orthopaedic context to assess the likelihood of shoulder problems occurring. To determine the value, a line is drawn from the lower edge of the glenoid to the upper edge of the glenoid – and a second line to the lateral edge of the acromion. The angle resulting from the lines represents the “Critical Shoulder Angle” (CSA).

An angle of more than 35° is referred to as a high CSA value. This indicates that the shoulder joint may be less stable and has an increased risk of certain shoulder conditions, such as rotator cuff injuries. A low CSA value indicates an angle of <30° and may indicate a higher likelihood of osteoarthritis developing in the shoulder joint.

Project description:

Both illustrations were created on the basis of 3D models of the skeleton and muscles and designed in the style of an X-ray image. A more three-dimensional representation of the muscles was chosen for better visibility.

The illustration of the high “Critical Shoulder Angle” shows a rupture of the rotator cuff, more specifically a rupture of the infraspinatus muscle. In order to avoid overlapping structures, the other muscles of the rotator cuff were not shown – except for the long head (caput longum) of the biceps brachii muscle.

In the illustration of the low CSA, osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is visualized by a narrowing of the joint space, osteophytes and changes in the shape and structure of the humeral head. In addition, the glenoid cavity of the scapula shows changes in its structure.

Project details illustrations Critical Shoulder Angle

Content: 2 illustrations

Use: Article in scientific journal

Specs: DIN A5, 300 dpi

Client: Walter Rojas

The rights of use of the images shown here are held by the client; use is not permitted. Images are protected by watermarks.